Posts Tagged ‘ancestry’
The men in the WWI records left their belongings to their mothers, fathers, sisters and aunts more often than they left them to wives. Very few of the records mention specific bequests, they can have had little to leave behind other than the wages owed to them by the army. These small legacies were not the only mark they made. Taking the wills as our starting point we used our records to re-create something more of the lives of a few of the young men found in the WW1 Wills.
One intriguing bequest was made by William Ahern who died in Belgium in June 1916 a year after making his will. William was born in Roscommon. His father served with the Royal Irish Constabulary and was born in America. The family moved around a great deal, the census shows that they lived in Clare, Roscommon and Cork. In his will he left £1 13 shillings and 4p “to the widow of Driver H Jenkins of the Central Argentine railway”. William had borrowed the money from Jenkins and felt honour bound to return it to the man’s wife. We went in search of Jenkins in the excellent database of Argentinian railway workers who served and died in the Great War but unfortunately there was no sign of him.
Another entry brought us to two brothers Peter and William Craig. Both served and died with the Dublin Fusiliers. William, the younger brother by 11 years died, aged 20, in France. His brother Peter died aged 30, also in France, just 13 months later. Both left their belongings to their mother at home in Dublin. The brothers can be seen in Ireland’s Memorial Record.
We went in search of William and Peter in our other records. While William couldn’t be found, Peter showed up time and again in the Petty Sessions & prison records. Nothing too serious! He is variously described as residing in Chapelizod, Palmerstown and Ballyfermot, all while living in the same house at St Laurence’s. He was caught a couple of times being “drunk and incapable”, quite normal for a young man but the law against public drinking was more rigidly enforced in the early 20th century, and Peter, unable to pay the fines, found himself jailed for periods of up to a month. On another occasion he was “cutting trees with intent”, it is not clear what he intended to do with the white thorn tree but his neighbour was not pleased. Not being able to pay the 10 shilling fine he spent 7 days in Kilimainham Gaol. Harsh justice for damage valued at 2 shillings.
One young man who did have substantial property to leave was Francis J Collins. He appears to be the only solider leaving a motor car, he also left race-horses and farms to his brother, Michael. We did wonder if perhaps Francis was joking.
Intrigued by this wealthy young private we went in search of Francis. In the 1911 census 38 North King Street, the residence of his brother named in the will, is an unoccupied Confectioner’s Shop. A quick search of Thom’s Directory for 1910 reveals that the confectioner’s shop was owned by the Monks family.
In the 1911 census a 26 year old Francis Joseph Collins can be found living with a George Monks, his cousin. Further research showed that their mothers’ were sisters. In the census Francis describes himself as a stationary [sic] packer. Might he have made his fortune in the intervening years?
These are just a few of the stories that can be told about the young Irishmen who died in WW1. Using historical records we can re-create the lives of these men who otherwise might be forgotten.
There are over 10,000 Irishmen recorded in the Kilmainham Pension records and they represent the ordinary men who signed up to serve with the British Army in Ireland during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. Many, as is revealed by the documents, were illiterate labourers and probably joined the army as it offered a secure income and the chance of a pension at a time when old-age or injury could mean abject poverty.
The men in these records served in the era of sailing ships, canon and muskets. During this time (c.1760-1823) the British Army was involved in several major conflicts including the American Revolutionary War (American War of Independence) and the Napoleonic Wars. The men saw service in the West Indies, America and across Europe - most famously at Waterloo. On home soil they fought against fellow country-men in the 1798 Rebellion.
Most regiments found in the records are known by numbers, a break with an earlier tradition of naming them after their commander. These numbered regiments were eventually renamed again and some are still familiar to us today. The 88th Foot became The Connaught Rangers, the 87th Royal Irish Fusiliers and the 27th became the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers. The army in Ireland comprised fewer than 15,000 men for most of the period covered by the records. For the most part the soldiers were not housed in large barracks, instead they lived in small groups in towns, and sometimes, as in the case of Fencibles, with their families.
In the records we see that men often served in more than one regiment. A good example of this is Owen Gallagher from Leitrim. Born in 1725 Owen was discharged at the ripe old age of seventy-seven in 1802. His record shows the progression of his career. He entered the army at the age of fifty-five, in 1780, and served for twelve years in the Dragoons (mounted infantry). At the age of sixty-seven he transferred to the Leitrim militia where he served just one year before going into the Invalid Regiment for the remaining nine years of his service. He rose in rank from Private to Corporal and then Sergeant in the Invalid Regiment. He was justly proud of his army career, including the word “Serjt” after his signature.
The early date of these records makes them a very exciting addition to our Irish family history records, particularly because they relate to men who would otherwise be ignored by the historical record. For the most part they are unlikely to have owned land or big businesses after leaving the army, they probably did not leave wills. Their pension records are the only knowledge they have of their existence, but they tell us a great deal. From the physical descriptions we can picture what they looked like, and from their occupations and the histories of their regiments we can imagine their lives.
We conceive it unreasonable, that such Persons who have faithfully served Us in Our Army, whilst their Health and Strength continued, should, when by Age, Wounds or other Infirmities, they are disabled from serving Us any longer, be discharged without any Care be taken for their future Subsistence
After receiving a Royal Charter from Charles II in 1679 the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham opened its doors to old, wounded and infirm soldiers on 25 March 1684. The hospital was built to house around 300 soldiers, and could accommodate up to 1000 in war-time conditions. Opposite the Phoenix Park on the outskirts of the city the 64 acres contained landscaped gardens and orchards. The building, purpose built as a rest-home, was grand and spacious. It must have been an impressive sight.
Very few of the soldiers recorded in the Kilmainham Pensions wrote memoirs. These men were, for the most part, ordinary privates, and many were illiterate, capable only of making their mark (X) on the discharge documents. One account that does survive is that of John Green, an English born carpet weaver pensioned from Kilmainham in December 1814 at the age of twenty-five. His account of his life in the British Army in the early nineteenth century, The vicissitudes of a soldier’s life (1827), gives us an insight into the system of assessment soldiers seeking to be pensioned out.
Most soldiers, as John Green did, received a pension payment (out-pensioners) rather than staying in the hospital. From John’s account we learn that soldiers hoping for a pension made their way to Dublin and found lodgings where they could. On presenting themselves at Kilmainham they were examined by the surgeon. The soldiers were then called into a room where secretary read out the surgeon’s findings to a panel of officers, and a summary of the soldier’s conduct and the reason for discharge. Each officer then called out an amount of money they felt was appropriate to the case. This could range from 6 pence per day to 1 shilling per day, to be paid in advance, equivalent to 6 months pension. At 9 pence per day this would work out at about ten weeks full pay.
John Green captures the feelings of the soldiers lucky enough to be granted a pension. These men, having survived deprivation, hardship and battle were living in a time when there was little charity, and no social welfare. They could just have easily been expected to support themselves after their discharge. John says their pension made them feel “delighted as though we had gained a comfortable independency, or fallen heirs to some great estates”.
Among the nearly 20,000 records of men pensioned from Royal Hospital, Kilmainham between 1783 and 1822, are those of over 10,000 Irishmen from all 32 counties.
Such a wild, iron-bound coast – with such an ocean-view as I had not yet seen – and such battling of waves with rocks as I had ever imagined
This is how Charlotte Brontë described her visit to Ireland, on her honeymoon, in July of 1854. Her connections with Ireland were twofold. Her husband, Arthur Bell Nicholls and her father, Patrick Brunty (Prunty), were both Irish. A lifelong friend to Charlotte also noted that she “spoke with a strong Irish accent”.
Patrick Brunty was born in Co. Down in March 1777. His father Hugh Brunty had moved from the south of Ireland to Down where he married Eleanor ‘Alice’ McClory in about 1776 and had ten children, Patrick was the eldest. The family stayed within a small geographic area even as their fortunes improved moving from Lisnacreevy to Ballynaskeagh in the late 1790s. Clusters of McClorys and Brontës remained in the area for generations afterwards.
Patrick had shown an early aptitude and thirst for academic learning and was permitted to pursue these interests rather than working on the family farm, culminating in the opening of his own school at the age of 16. The upheaval of the 1798 rebellion appears to have disrupted his ability to keep his school open and he became a private tutor. Here his continued striving for self-improvement did not go unnoticed and he was encouraged to study Latin and Greek to prepare him for the Church. He entered Cambridge in 1802 at the age of 25. He was one of only two or three Irishmen admitted to Cambridge that year, and he was considerably older and poorer than most of his fellow students. It is believed that it was here at Cambridge that he altered the spelling of his name to the now famous Brontë. What is interesting to note is that this variation of the name can also be seen by the mid-nineteenth century among other members of the family, still living in Ireland, and from whom Patrick had deliberately distanced himself. Patrick did not cut ties entirely, he sent copies of Charlotte’s books to his family in Ireland.
Patrick had a difficult relationship with ‘Ireland’ and at turns embraced and distanced himself from his ‘Irishness’. It may be that his objections to Arthur Bell Nicholls as a suitor for his talented and famous daughter were not merely those of a proud father who thinks no one is good enough for his little girl. Arthur Bell Nicholls was close to his family in Ireland holidaying there and eventually returning to live there after Charlotte and her father’s death. Perhaps Patrick feared that Arthur would take Charlotte to Ireland, he could hardly be expected to remain a curate after his marriage. Arthur who was born near Belfast in 1819, arrived to the Haworth Parsonage in 1845 as curate, having studied at Trinity College, Dublin. He spent the next eight years working diligently alongside Patrick, whose eyesight and general health were failing, before working up sufficient courage to ask for Charlotte’s hand in marriage. He was immediately rejected by an incensed Patrick who wrote vitriolic letters to Charlotte about the presumptive ‘man’. However the romantic idea of the young man’s long unrequited love won Charlotte’s heart, where genuine feeling on her part was somewhat lacking. They honeymooned in Ireland where Charlotte was pleasantly surprised by the genteel manners of her new Irish relations
The other cousin was a pretty lady-like girl with gentle English manners….. I must say I like my new relations
Charlotte also greatly appreciated the beauty of the Irish countryside during their four week stay. She spent hours in silent contemplation of the Atlantic coast as her new husband hovered nervously nearby as she walked along the cliff edge. Unfortunately their happiness was not to last and Charlotte died only a few months later during the early stages of a difficult pregnancy. Her husband stayed at Haworth tending to his father-in-law until Patrick’s death in 1861. Arthur then moved back to Ireland, to the family home, where he can be found in the King’s County Directory in 1890. He lived there until 1906, outliving his famous wife by half a century.
Juliet Barker, The Brontës, (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson), 1994
Juliet Barker, The Brontës: A Life in Letters (London: Viking), 1997
Yesterday, the 11th of November was the 133rd anniversary of the death of one of Australia’s, if not, the world’s most notorious outlaws, Ned Kelly. This inspired us to do a bit of research in the Irish Prison Registers to find out the fate of Irish convicts who were sent Down Under in prison ships, the good and the bad.
John “Red” Kelly
You don’t have to look too far to figure out where Ned Kelly got his rebellious streak. Ned’s father John, originally from Moyglass in Co. Tipperary, was arrested on the 4th December 1840. Our records show his crime was “stealing two pigs from James Cooney” of Ballysheehan, near Cashel. He subsequently sold the pigs at Cahir market for about £6. You can see his prison record below:
After his conviction he was referred to the Cashel Assizes and subsequently sentenced to transportation for seven years. On the 31st July 1841 he was sent to Van Diemen’s Land, now Tasmania, aboard “The Prince Regent” where he would spend the next six years in hard labour. After his release John moved to Victoria, eventually marrying Ellen Quinn. Their son Edward (Ned) was born in Melbourne and would go on to become one of the most infamous names in Australian history.
Kevin Izod O’Doherty
On the other side of the spectrum we have Dubliner Kevin Izod O’Doherty, who would go on to become a well-respected physician and politician in his adopted country. O’Doherty was a member of the Young Ireland party and founder of the short lived Irish Tribune newspaper. He was sent to Tasmania in 1849 for ten years for “feloniously publishing sedition in a newspaper called The Irish Tribune”. We can see his prison record below:
In 1854 he received a pardon and went to Paris to continue his medical studies. In 1862 he returned to Australia this time to Brisbane and became well known as one of its leading physicians.
He was eventually elected a member of the legislative assembly in 1867 and in 1872 was responsible for a health act being passed, and was also one of the early opponents of the traffic in kanakas. In 1877 he transferred to the legislative council before resigning in 1885. O’Doherty returned to Dublin but was back in Brisbane within a year, deciding that he could not stick the Irish climate anymore!
Do you have any ancestors in your family tree who were sent to Australia on prison ships? We’d love to hear their stories and hopefully compile them into a follow up post, feel free to get in touch via the comments box below.
We recently came across a copy of “The Irish in Britain 1800-1914” by Donald M. Macgraild, part of the Studies in Irish Economic and Social History series, on the office bookshelf and managed to to find some incredibly interesting statistics which should pique the interest of those of you whose ancestors made the journey across the Irish Sea.
Up until the outbreak of the Great Famine in 1845, Britain was the principal receiver of Irish migrants. Although this trend began to shift as the Famine took hold, as more and more migrants boarded ships for Canada and the United States, Britain still managed to account for one quarter of the total migrant population. As late as 1901, there was still nearly twice as many Irish-born in Britain as there was in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand combined.
This enthusiasm for moving across the Irish Sea was not matched by our British cousins and according to Fitzpatrick (1986) by the mid-Victorian period the difference was twelve-fold i.e. for every twelve Irish making the journey to Britain, just one British person emigrated to Ireland.
The vast numbers of Irish travelling to Britain in the pre-famine period worked in the burgeoning industrial centres, particularly textiles, coal-mining and iron foundries. Concentrations of Irish emigrants were also found in port towns such as Liverpool (where in 1851 Irish born made up over 20% of the city’s population) . This was a migration of skilled labourers, meeting local labour demand and built on centuries of mutual trade. It was only during the famine, and post-famine years that waves of unskilled labourers flocked to the urban centres of Britain in search of whatever work might be available.
The table below complied from the censuses of England, Wales and Scotland shows the significant percentage of those living in Britain who worn born in Ireland:
Migrants were often transitory , following work across the country. Those of us searching for our migratory ancestors need to keep this in mind, as family members may not always be found where we ‘know’ they settled. Many can be found living in lodging houses run by fellow-Irish before settling into more permanent homes, moving on to other parts of Britain or the United States, or in some cases, moving back to Ireland.
If you happen to be one of the hundreds of thousands of Irish people out there with ancestors divided between both Ireland and Britain it’s never been a better time to start researching your family tree. The census records are just one of the sources which will allow you to search for your Irish ancestors. We’re currently offering a 15% discount on our Britain & Ireland subscription which includes almost 900 million records!
Fitzpatrick, D (1986) “A Peculiar Tramping People”: the Irish in Britain, 1801-70, in W.E. Vaughan A New History of Ireland, vol. 5: Ireland Under the Union part 1
Macgraild, D.M. (2006) “The Irish in Britain 1800-1914″, Studies in Irish Economic and Social History,
A new book out this month has piqued our interest for two reasons!
Small Lives: Photographs of Irish Childhood 1860 - 1970 is a window into childhood across Ireland over a century of great social and political change. Using photographs from the collections of the National Library of Ireland the book shows children at school, at work and as part of major events and local festivities in their communities. It is a fascinating photographic record of childhood in Ireland through the latter half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth. And it just so happens the book was edited by our very own Aoife O Connor! In this post she gives us a glimpse at two of the earliest photographs from the book and the stories which emerged during her research.
Family photographs are precious. They add a whole new dimension to our families’ stories. Looking at the faces of our ancestors and seeing the family resemblances brings us closer to them and allows us more easily imagine them going about their daily lives. It can also be maddening to have a photograph, handed down through the generations, and not to know who the person is looking out at us from the past, is it a stranger? a neighbour? or a person we know intimately from our research?
While writing Small Lives I often wished I could know more about the lives of the children in the photographs. Some will always remain a mystery as their names were not recorded by the photographer. Others, which include a name and a date, provide a wonderful genealogical puzzle to be solved. Using these few details we can discover how the children’s lives unfolded.
The earliest photographs in Small Lives are of the sons and daughters of barons, high ranking military men and landed gentry. These children were born into wealth and luxury, estate records show the extent of their family’s holdings, in later life they can be found in Burke’s Landed Gentry, later again census records list the many servants living in their houses.
One little boy, Matthew Charles Edward Fortescue, photographed in an elaborate velvet outfit in 1866. His outfit may have been to celebrate his being breeched, aged five. Breeching was a significant transition for young boys in the 19th and 20th century. They were now considered old enough to manage the intricacies of adult clothing. Breeching often coincided, in the case of wealthier boys, with the move away from home and the nursery to boarding school. Matthew was born in India, and it was there that this photograph was probably taken before his move back to Ireland after his father, a major in the army died of cholera in 1867. Matthew went on to become High Sherriff of Louth and can be found in Burke’s Landed Gentry , 1899.
Photographed wearing fashionable dress, including a Medici belt and a bishop sleeve bodice, this girl’s clothing is an adaptation of adult dress. Photography was a novel and more affordable alternative to having a portrait painted and in the 1860s photographic studios were opened in many towns. Mary Adelaide has been provided with a chair to lean on to help her keep still during the long exposure time necessary in early photography. For this same reason smiling was not encouraged in early photography as it is a difficult expression to hold for lengthy periods.
Photographed at around age 12, Mary Adelaide Domville grew up in Santry Court, Dublin where her father held the baronetcy. On her marriage the house passed to her husband’s family, and members of that family can be found living there in the 1901 census. Mary Adelaide herself can be found in the 1901 census living in a household where servants outnumber the family members.
Small Lives - Photographs of Irish Childhood 1860-1970 (ed. Aoife O Connor) is published by Gill & Macmillan and can be purchased in their Online Shop
The photographs in Small Lives are from the collections of the National Library of Ireland
The 200,000 records in Byrne’s Irish Times Abstracts 1859-1901 are sure to be a huge benefit to those of you who have ancestors who were based in Dublin city and it’s Southern Suburbs in the later part of the 19th century. The information contained in this index is of such value as records a huge variety of information on virtually every building in Dublin city and the South-side of Dublin including:
- Social activities
- Criminal and civil law cases
As well as property information such as:
- Sanitary conditions
- Names of occupants (both current and previous, historical facts)
The entries, all taken from copies of the Irish Times are also useful for tracking well know members of Dublin society at this time. For example we can track some of the activities of Ireland’s most famous wit Oscar Wilde. We can see here how at the age of 24 he took legal action regarding a contract for a property in Bray:
The second entry takes note of a trip to Brighton for the playwright:
While the third references his trial in 1895:
If an event was recorded in the Irish Times during these year’s it’s here!
This August we’ll be packing our bags for Milwaukee, Wisconsin and Irish Fest 2012. Irish Fest is North America’s largest celebration of Irish culture and takes place from Thursday 16 August and until Sunday 19 on the shores of gorgeous Lake Michigan in the Henry W Maier Festival Park.
The event is a four day extravaganza featuring all that’s great about Irish culture including music, dance, food and even a Gaeltacht area attracting over 100,000 Irish enthusiasts each year.
You’ll be able to find us in the genealogy tent in the cultural village. We can’t wait to attend and hope to see you there!
Date: 16-19 August
Time: Thursday 5pm-10pm | Friday 4pm -12am | Saturday 12pm -12am | Sunday 11am - 10pm
Venue: Henry W Maier Festival Park, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Further info: Irish Fest website
The Sun King’s Irish Galley Slaves
We love a list of names here at fmp.ie and although this record set is not one we have on the website we thought you might like to hear about this rare and unusual ‘offline’ source for seventeenth and eighteenth century prisoners in the galley ships of France during the reign of Louis XIV.
In the late seventeenth century thousands of soldiers left Ireland to join continental forces, many served in the Irish regiments of Louis XIV’s French army. While the involvement of Irish troops in the European wars of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century are well documented their names are largely forgotten.
Some records were transcribed, such as those found in the de La Ponce manuscript housed in the RIA, a two volume history of Irish regiments in France listing the names and pedigrees of officers. This material was drawn on by John Cornelius O’Callaghan for his History of the Irish Brigades in the Service of France, published in 1869. While both of these are, undoubtedly, valuable and underused genealogical resources for the period, they are primarily concerned with officers, gentlemen, people with pedigrees, not ordinary soldiers.
The ratio of ordinary soldiers to officers means that for every officer we might know about there are probably ten (or more) ordinary soldiers whose names are largely unrecorded. Information on these men usually comes through casualty lists or from records of disciplinary actions.
One small but fascinating source relating to the arrest and punishment of Irish soldiers in the French army is a list, compiled by Eoghan Ó hAnnracháin, of 167 Irishmen who were sentenced to serve as galley slaves aboard French ships between 1660 and 1748. The 167 names discovered by Ó hAnnracháin are scattered among those of over 60,000 prisoners recorded in the massive ledgers of the galleys, which are housed in the Service Historique de la Marine in Toulon, France. The dedicated research involved in discovering these names is to be greatly admired as they gives us a unique glimpse into the fate of ordinary Irish soldiers in this pivotal period of European history (those who broke the law anyway!).
Most of those sentenced to serve in the galleys were deserters, although others were charged with a range of offences from stealing to forgery. The deserters were sentenced to serve as rowers in the oar-powered galleys still in use well into the eighteenth century by the French navy to ferry goods between sailing ships. Conditions were harsh and most would die in their chains. Many opted to return to active service rather than face the conditions aboard a galley. Some even volunteered to work in towns as corbeau (lit. raven) affected by outbreaks of plague, removing and burying bodies of plague victims, such was the reputation of the galley ships.
The bulk of the entries in the list date to between 1690 and 1740, with most of them clustered around 1700-1710. The short entries are full of information. As well as the name of the prisoner and the charge for which they were arrested most entries note the prisoner’s county of origin, their age at arrest and physical appearance, their parent’s names are also recorded; and, in most cases, their fate. Occupations are also recorded in a number of the entries, these include wigmaker, tailor and shoemaker. Twenty-three counties are represented although the bulk (47) are from Dublin. The next largest groups are from Limerick (18) and Cork (17).
The three entries below give a flavour of these mini-biographies. The details are such that you can almost picture the man. Ó hAnnracháin has provided us with a truly fascinating snap-shot of a group of men who would otherwise be wholly unknown to us.
John Armstrong son of Brian and Janette Lennon [Linon]; native of Ballinrobe, Ireland; mason; soldier in O Brien’s company, Lee Irish regiment; aged 18; good build; oval face; chestnut hair; arrived on the Paris chain on 4 December 1716; sentenced by court martial at Douai on 6 July 1716; desertion; life; died or escaped after being loaned [prêté] to the town of Marseille on 24 August 1720 to serve as corbeau [lit. raven] during the plague.
Terence O Brien [Turrance Corien] called Irlandois; son of Daniel and Catherine; native of Cloyne [Cloune] in Ireland, aged 27; tall; oval face; chestnut hair; arrived at Marseille on 4 June 1703 on the Paris chain conducted by sieur Nicolas Moncau – 254 men of whom three died en route, and the chain of criminals from the Metz prisons – 32 men according to the list of St. Didier, Procureur du Roi; sentenced by the provost of the royal camps and armies at Strasbourg on 23 December 1702; complicity in the killing of the provost of a village and for having forcibly secured lodgings and food; life; [not indicated what became of him]
Stephen Sullivan [Sulval or Surval, Etienne]; son of Amhlaoibh [Houel] and Marguerite Maurice; native of Dublin, Ireland; soldier in the colonel’s company, Anguenois regiment; aged 23; good build; long face; chestnut hair; arrived Marseille on 22 April 1701 on the Paris chain – 343 men of whom six died en route; sentenced by court martial at Logoux on 13 January 1701; desertion; life; freed on 23 March 1702 to serve in the Albermarle regiment for the rest of his life; handed over to Lieutenant Kuorville.
The full list of 167 names is available in Ó hAnnracháin, E. (2006) “Galériens: The Irish Galley Slaves of France”, The Irish Sword: The Journal of the Military History Society of Ireland, Vol. XXV, No. 99
Past issues of The Irish Sword are available from their website http://www.mhsi.ie/thesword.htm
References & Further Reading
Chartrand, R., (1988) Louis XIV’s Army, Men at Arms 203, Osprey Publishing
O’Callaghan, J.C. (1869) History of the Irish Brigades in the Service of France available on CD ROM from http://www.eneclann.ie/
Ó hAnnracháin, E. (2006) “Galériens: The Irish Galley Slaves of France”, The Irish Sword: The Journal of the Military History Society of Ireland, Vol. XXV, No. 99
Ó hAnnracháin, E. (2007) “Men of the West in the Galleys of France”, Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society, Vol 59, pp. 37-45
Ó hAnnracháin, E. (2007) “Dubliners in the Galleys of France”, Dublin Historical Record, Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 208-217